Thursday, November 28, 2013

THANKSGIVING IN PICTURES


Christal Cooper – 613 Words
Facebook @ Christal Ann Rice Cooper

Thanksgiving In Pictures

The Mayflower was a cargo ship about 106 feet long and 25 feet wide.  It traveled about two miles per hour and covered 3000 miles, two months worth of sailing. The passengers totaled 102 with 50 men, 20 women, and 32 children.

They were all coming to the New World (America) to begin new lives.  Some came to escape the religious persecution, and   others came to start a livelihood since England at the time was facing huge unemployment.

       Samoset was the first Native American Indian to greet the Colonists, and he greeted them in English, which he was fluent in.    Samoset learned the language from fisherman and other explorers who had come to the New World years before.  Samoset was described as very tall with long black hair.   He stayed with the Colonists for several days.

The third time Samoset visited the Colonists, Squanto was by his side.  Squanto had been kidnapped by an English seaman and was sold in Spain to be a slave.  Years later, when he was free, he made his way to England, where he lived and worked for five years.  When he returned back to his homeland, he found that his entire village, the Patuxet Tribe, was deserted.  Everyone had died or became members of other tribes in order to survive. 

Squanto taught the Colonists how to survive by planting corn and using dead fish as fertilizer. He was not always the romanticized, good Native American Indian.  Sometimes he would deliberately misinterpret conversations where it benefited him the most.  His goal was to be an important native leader.  In the end, when he died, he got his ultimate wish, and the colonists viewed him as “an instrument of God.”

Chief Massasoit was a powerful leader of the Wampanoag.  Chief Massasoit and the Colonists met, and were able to have a peaceful discussion, with the help of Squanto as interpreter.  Chief Massasoit and the Colonists signed a treaty together.  They promised to return anything that was stolen, and vowed to defend each other from enemy attacks.

Edward Winslow was the leader of the Mayflower.  He served as the governor of Plymouth Colony in 1633, 1636, and 1644.  His testimony in Mourt’s Relation is one of only two primary sources of the “first thanksgiving” in existence.  Below is an excerpt:

"Our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling, that so we might after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the fruits of our labors. They four in one day killed as much fowl as,  with a little help beside, served the company almost a week. At which time, amongst other recreations, we exercised our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest king, Massasoit, with some ninety men, whom for three day days we entertained and feasted, and they went out and killed five deer, which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain and others. And although it be not always so plentiful as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want that we often wish you partakers of our plenty."

       Thanksgiving never became a holiday until 1863 due to the efforts of editor and writer Sarah Hale trying to get Thanksgiving declared a holiday.  It took her twenty years, pleading of five presidents, before President Abraham Lincoln finally made the first Thanksgiving holiday in November of 1863.
In 1941, The United States Congress voted to have Thanksgiving holiday a yearly holiday, the fourth Thursday of the month of November.


Photo  Description and Copyright Info

Photo 1.
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor.  Public Domain. 

Photo 2.
Samoset in the 1850s.  Attributed to Leeback.  Public Domain.

Photo 3.
Squanto.  Public Domain.

Photo 4.
Statue of Chief Massasoit.  Public Domain.

Photo 5.
Jacket cover of by Massasoit of the Wampanoags by Alivn G Weeks.

Photo 6.
Edward Winslow.  Public Domain.

Photo 7.
The First Thanksgiving.  Public Domain.

Photo 8.
Sarah Hale.  Public Domain.

Thursday, November 21, 2013

The Forgotten Heroes: From American Revolution to Vietnam


Christal Cooper – 897 Words
Facebook @ Christal Ann Rice Cooper

The Forgotten Heroes:
From the American Revolution to Vietnam

         Whenever we think of the typical veteran we envision a white male with a high school education in a middle class blue-collar family.  People fail to realize that another group of people sacrificed as much, if not more, in order to aid the United States in maintaining their soverienty.  Native Americans not only enlisted in the military, but they had to fight their own government for the right to defend a country that was originally theirs long before the European influence arrived.

  Why would a group of people want to fight for a government that violated their whole race, took away their land and freedom?  German Minister Propaganda Josef Paul Goebbels felt the same way.  In fact, he was so certain that the Native Americans would never side with the United States, that in 1941, he predicted the Native Americans would revolt against the United States on behalf of Nazi Germany.  He couldn’t have been farther from the truth.  Native Americans joined the military with a one hundred per cent registration rate, which has set the standard for America.

         The Native American desiring to serve his and her country was not new in World War II.  The Native Americans aided the United States in its wars as far back as the American Revolution when the Creeks and Cherokees helped the colonials in defeating the English. 

From the 1860s to the 1880s the United States Army used the Crow, Pawnee, and Apache as scouts in battle against the Plains Tribes.  Native Americas were also recruited in the Civil War by both sides in very large numbers.  

In 1898, Native Americans fought with the United States in the Spanish-American War.  During World War I, over 12,000 Native Americans, 85% of them volunteers, served in the military forces.

Oklahoma Congressman Jed Joseph Johnson, who served with the American Indians in World War I as a private said, “I served with many full-blood Indians and part-Indians during World War I in France.  I saw them in action in the front lines and I was deeply impressed with their valor and courage.  There were no better or braver soldier than were the American Indians.”

Soon, the Native Americans enlisted the aid of Indian Affairs Commissioner John Collier when they were denied entry into the military due to lack of education and lack of ability to understand the English language.  In other words, the Native Americans were being discriminated by the process of registration. 




By October 1941, the registration process for the Native American had slightly improved.  At that time 1,785 Native Americans were in the armed forces. 

The Navajo tribe, who were described as being intelligent and having the strong desire to serve their country, were denied registration due to their 85% population illiteracy rate.  The Selective Service promised that the Navajo would no longer be rejected, but no action had been taken for a year.  Finally, the War Department agreed to locate former Indian Service personnel and assign them to literacy training of the Navajo people.  The Army Air Force instituted a literacy program from 1942-1943 in New Jersey. 

The Navajo, despite the fact that they claimed a large rejection rate of forty-five percent, responded to the nation’s need by sending 3000 people, six percent of their population, into the military service.

         Indians were so hungry to fight on behalf of the United States that when the Alaska registration draft occurred, Eskimos (Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits) from the Soviet Union came to register to the American Army.  They were tactfully denied and told that they must enlist in the Russian Army instead.

         Over 5000 Native Americans enrolled in the Army, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and the National Guard prior to Pearl Harbor.  After World War II was declared by the United States, 800 Navajo men out of 3,600 enlisted in one day.  One fourth of the Mescalero Apaches in New Mexico enlisted.  Wisconsin Chippewa at the Lac Oreilles Reservation contributed one hundred men from the population of 1700.  The enlistment of the Native American population had reached an all time high of 22,000 in 1945.  After the war ended the Indian Bureau officials stated that 24,521 American Indians not including officers served in the armed forces, and another 20,000 off-reservation Indians also had enlisted, which combined to be a total figure of 44,500, comprising more than 10% of the Native American population of 400,000. 

         Native Americans had many reasons for desiring to serve in the military, which included earning better pay to escape a poverty situation to being honored by their tribe for bravery.  The most stated reason by the Native American was due to patriotism. 

Raymond Nakai, ex-Navajo Code Talker, stated that the reason why Indians entered the war is due to patriotism:  “We are proud to be American Indians.  We always stand when our country needs us.”


         More than 80% of the Native Americans who are Vietnam Veterans saw some type of combat duty by being assigned military occupations that almost guaranteed their direct participation in battle.  

     Native American Veterans, especially Vietnam Veterans are not recognized for their service except by their own people.  During Vietnam, the Native Americans fought in numbers exceeding their proportional population.  At the time of the war the Native Americans made up less than 1% of the Vietnam troops.  

Writer Jere Bishop Franco says it best: “Indians had become one of America’s greatest weapons.”


PHOTO DESCRIPTION AND COPYRIGHT INFO


Photo 1.
Pencil sketch of Joseph Louis Cook, who was an Iroquois leader and soldier for the Continental Army during the American Revolution.  Attributed to John Trumbull.  Public Domain.

Photo 2.
Guyasuta probably served as a scout for young George Washington in 1753.  Public Domain.

Photo 3.
Ely S. Parker was a Union Civil War General who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.  Parker was one of two Native Americans to reach the rank of Brigadier General during the Civil War.  Public Domain.

Photo 4.
Native Americans being sworn in for the Civil War.  Public Domain.

Photo 5.     
Stand Watie was the only Indian with the rank of general in the Confederate Army.  Public Domain.

Photo 6.
Oklahoma Representative Jed Joseph Johnson.  Public Domain.

Photo 7.
Left to right: Senator Elmer Thomas, Chairman of the Committee; Claude M. Hirst, Director of the Office of Indian affairs in Alaska; and John Collier, U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs on February 7, 1937.  Atrributed to Harris & Ewing.  Library of Congress photo.  Public Domain.

Photo 8.  
WW I Choctow paitent.  .  Attributed to U.S. National Library of Medicine Public Domain.

Photo 9.
En route to Okinawa, PFC Joe Hosteen Kelwood of Steamboat Canyon, Ganado, Arizona; Pvt Floyd Saupitty of Lawton, Oklahoma (a Comanche); and PFC Alex Williams of Red Lake, Leupp, Arizona. Between 400-500 Native American “code talkers” served in the United States Marine Corps in the Pacific Theater. Their job was primarily to transmit secret tactical messages by using a coded language. This coded language was built upon their native languages and sent over military telephone or radios.  Marine Corps Archives and Special Collections.

Photo 10.
Choctow Code Talkers.  Photo courtesy of the Oklahoma Historical Society.  Public Domain.

Photo 11.
Navajo Code Talkers.  Attributed to an employee of the U.S. Navy working on behalf of the U.S. government.  Public Domain.

Photo 12.
Siberian Yupiks, or Yuits, are indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska. They speak Central Siberian Yupik (also known as Yuit), a Yupik language of the Eskimo–Aleut family of languages.  Russia:  Public Domain.

Photo 13.
General Douglas MacArthur , Commander-in-Chief, standing with representatives of five Native American Indian tribes in one United States Army unit.   From left to right:  Sgt. Virgin Bronw (Pima);  Sgt Virgil P Howe (Pawnee); Sgt Alvin Vilcan (Chitmatcha); General MacArthur; Sgt. Byron L Tsignine (Navajo); and Sgt Larry Dekin (Navajo).  Janury 3, 1944.  United Staes Corps Photo.   Public Domain.

Photo 14.
American Indian women too have joined the fighting forces against Germany and Japan. These three are members of the U.S. Marine Corps. They are [left to right] Minnie Spotted Wolf of the Blackfeet, Celia Mix, Potawatomi, and Violet Eastman, Chippewa.  October 16, 1943 in Camp Lejeune, North CarolinaNational Archives and Records Administration.  Public Domain.

Photo 15.
Raymond Nakai

Photo 16.
Mitchell Red Cloud Jr., a member of the Ho-Chunk tribe, was a soldier in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. Red Cloud died holding back a surprise onslaught of enemy forces, giving his company time to prepare its defenses. He was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for his courageous action in battle.  U.S. National Library of Medicine.  Public Domain.

Photo 17.
Billy Walkabout.  Vietnam Veteran. 

Monday, November 18, 2013

She Called Him Father - 35 Years Ago on November 18, 1978 The Guyana Massacre


Christal Cooper – 2,776 Words
Facebook @ Christal Ann Rice Cooper

SHE CALLED HIM FATHER
“During my five years in the People’s Temple,
I was sometimes in and sometimes out. 
There were times that I believed that he was God 
and there were times I did not.”
Nell Juanell Smart


In early 1972, Nell Juanell Smart picked up her seven-year-old daughter Terri from the church that her uncle Jim McElvane and mother Enola Kay Nelson attended.  Smart was met at the door by her uncle and told to go sit in the balcony where Teri was waiting.        



Smart climbed the stairs to the auditorium and sat down to listen to the pastor preach.  The pastor seemed small to Smart.  He was Caucasian with rich dark hair and wore a robe.  Smart listened to Jim Jones preach and immediately felt and heard the charisma in his voice that was both commanding and undemanding. 

There were three things Jones said that made a good impression on Smart: he believed in women as equals to men; he wanted no social hierarchy for believers within the church; and he believed that children had rights in the family. Smart, who was involved in an unhealthy relationship at the time, was also impressed with Jones when he spoke about the difficulties in relationships.   

     “I couldn’t get his words out of my mind.  I told my other three children about him and convinced them to go with me to hear what he had to say.  By the time the meeting ended my children and I were hooked.”



 Smart was surprised at her response to Jim Jones.  Her past with religion and her view of God was not a positive one.  Her parents divorced when she was three years old, and her mother, stepfather, and grandmother raised her.  Her mother, a social worker and real estate broker, was considered the matriarch of the family and reared her daughter to believe that Jesus was God, and that one must be saved to escape the fires of hell.  In 1960 she married her second husband, a Pentecostal pastor, and during this marriage realized that her view of God was a God who disappointed her.

         “God was certainly having people doing a bunch of stuff in His name that was hurtful.  This couldn’t be the God my parents taught me growing up.  If so, then He’s not the God that I want.”

For the first time, Smart felt captivated, changed, and validated about God, which she contributes to Jim Jones and his voice and his message.  She became an active member of the People’s Temple in Los Angeles, and had the typical pastor-church member encounters with Jones.  Smart described Jones’s services as being Pentecostal while his sermons were not.  At the end of the services, individuals would come down the aisles to be healed by Jones.  Smart compared believing in the healing to that of believing in Santa Claus.

         Her mother, the church treasurer in the People’s Temple in Los Angeles, encouraged Smart to become involved in church projects, one of which was to be in charge of the membership, which required Smart to keep track of who was there, who was not there, who joined, who left and the reasons why.  At the time Smart was working at a credit union in Los Angeles, and was asked to establish the People’s Temple Credit Union in Los Angeles.  The People’s Temple Credit Union was like a bank, or rather, according to Smart, had the appearance of being like a bank. The church members had individual accounts.  All loans had to be approved by The People’s Temple committee.  Smart gathered the applications to present to the committee and signed the checks.

     “One or two loans were approved in the Los Angeles Temple.  I applied for a loan at the credit union, and I was declined, and I was upset.”  
  It was in Los Angeles that Smart met one of the People’s Temple ministers, David Wise.  Smart and Wise, without required approval from Jim, married in secret. 
       
“He would tell me things that were going on.  He would tell me the ins and outs of what was really happening that the general members did not see.  I became disillusioned.”

         Smart described her marriage to Wise as being based on trust more than on love.  They kept the marriage a secret from Jim Jones and other church members.  Smart became more disillusioned with The People’s Temple when she was arrested for drunk driving after an argument with David.  Her car was taken to the People’s Temple and she was sent to jail, bailed out by her mother and other People’s Temple counselors.

         “Jim came back in town the following weekend and chastised me for being arrested by the police department, which made him look bad.  I was angry because I didn’t feel this man had any right to talk to me as if I were a child.”

Smart decided to find out the truth about the People’s Temple by becoming a counselor on the People’s Temple Planning Commission.  The Planning Commission, in which her uncle and mother were counselors, was created to look out for the members and their best interests.  Smart knew that in order for her to be a counselor on the Planning Commission she had to gain trust.    

         It was around this time that the couple decided to leave.  Smart helped David leave, hoping he would prepare a place for both of them so she could also defect.
         “We had a little secret hideout place where we’d meet.  It’s like seeking asylum after defecting from Russia or something.  It’s very strange.”
         The last straw was when, during a planning commission meeting in Los Angeles, a young woman was brought up on the floor and accused of wrongdoing.  She was told to undress.
         “We were expected to ridicule her and her body.  I felt her humiliation as I am sure many others who were there did.”

         The next thing on the agenda was to accuse David of tapping Father’s telephone lines.  Someone questioned Smart if she thought what Wise did was wrong.  Her response:  “If he tapped Father’s phone then I guess he was wrong.”  She was immediately verbally attacked for not believing that Wise tapped Jones’s phone lines.  The verbal attack lasted for hours until Smart broke down and cried. 

         “Jim said, ‘Nell, what’s wrong?’  (I said) ‘I want out.  I don’t believe in this.’  He whispered something to somebody.  They came back with a gun and placed my fingerprints on this gun. I assumed it was to blackmail me, to accuse me of something in case I said anything negative about the church.  Everybody gasped.  Jim said ‘You don’t think I gave her a loaded gun, do you?’”  The gun, supplied by Uncle Mac was placed in a plastic bag.”       

         At first, Jones told Smart she’d have to live at least 100 miles away from the People’s Temple if she wanted to defect.  Smart responded that Los Angeles was her home and she would not leave.  Jones then told Smart he would allow her to leave if she signed custody of her minor children to him:  Tinetra Ladese Fain, 20; Alfred Smart Jr., 18; Scottie Smart, 15; and Teri Lynn Smart, 14.  Smart agreed to it knowing the signed piece of paper would have no validity in a court of law.  She then contacted an attorney friend who knew a judge and had the custody of the children given to their father. 

The People’s Temple was moving to Guyana, South America at Jim Jones’s orders to escape the racism in America.  It was to be a slow migration.  Small groups of people were going to Guyana, South America to clear and develop the 900 acres in the rainforests for the others.  Smart’s mother and eldest daughter were already there.

         “I later went to Guyana with my three younger children because they wanted to go.  I wanted to see what it was like.  I felt that it was okay for my children.  It just was not my lifestyle.”
              In hindsight there were warning signs but at the time Smart did not see them as warning signs or didn’t see it as something that would wrongly affect the community. 
“It was obvious that Jim’s drug abuse had dragged this once-dynamic speaker to the level of those he pulled from the streets.” 

         Sometime later, on November 18, 1978 USA time, Smart received a phone call from friend Hugh Forson at 7 a.m. while in bed.  He was still a part of the church, but was visiting San Francisco at the time.     
         “He said, ‘Nell, don’t worry everything is okay.’  I hung up the phone and (thought) what is he talking about?  I called him back and he said that Ryan was shot.  So I turned the news on.  It’s all a blur.”

         Before California Congressman Leo Ryan and his party could board a plan leaving Jonestown in Guyana, South America to the United States, Jim Jones’s men shot and killed Ryan, NBC Newsman Bob Brown, NBC Correspondent Don Harris, Examiner photographer Greg Robinson, and defector Patricia Park.  



     Smart’s mother, uncle, and four children were among the 900-plus people who died by drinking or being injected with Purple Kool-Aid laced with potassium chloride and potassium cyanide.  Two United States military cargo planes flew in to bring back the bodies, now swollen and rotted, to grieving relatives.  Those unidentified were buried in a mass grave in Oakland, California marked by a headstone.  

“I believe my children and my mother were all together.  I don’t think my two sons took it willingly.  My sons did not believe in what was going on as much as the girls did.”

         Smart had her children and mother cremated.  Their ashes are in urns hidden away in her closet.  Smart has made plans to be cremated upon death, her ashes mixed in with those in the urns, and then scattered into the Pacific Ocean. 

         Since that day in 1978, Smart has had time for reflection.  She has also moved from California to Jones’s hometown Indianapolis, Indiana, due to her job.  She retired from the Federal Government after 30 years of service. 

         Smart now works part time as a pharmacy technician, surrounds herself with supportive friends, and lives with her rat terrier Sydney.  For fun, she does makeovers on her house, bowls, and reads.  Smart has found a safe place in her life – which includes living alone.  Smart also spends time with other ex-members of the People’s Temple.  With them, questions can be raised without fear.  There is strong healing within the group, but the one thing the group cannot decide upon is the issue of brainwashing.  

         “Were we brainwashed in People’s Temple?  That bone of contention is, was and will forever be.  As for my view, I don’t think that any layperson can explain brainwashing anymore than they can explain being in love.  What I am reasonably sure of is that it was not the matter of brainwashing that ruffled feathers, but rather the statement that one must take responsibility for one’s own actions.  I believe each of us wants to think of ourselves as a good person, so it is hard to admit that any bad deeds done while in People’s Temple could have been done by that good person.  We think we are.  The only way to accept that is to believe that we must have been brainwashed.  And if we have to bear the responsibility for our actions, does that not also mean that each of us is in part responsible for what happened on November 18?”

         Despite the debate, meeting with the group on a regular basis has been a healing experience for Smart.  She began meeting with the group in 1998, twenty years after the massacre, and now feels less guilt and secure with her feelings.  She finds the group to be a haven.

         The lessons Smart learned through this experience she believes is the same lesson that all civilizations have learned - that when a person or group of persons are at their most vulnerable they should attach themselves to a group that has a positive impact and uplifts them.  Smart also believes that African Americans (who made up 80% of the membership) were at their most vulnerable and taken in by Jim Jones. 

         “People still haven’t learned through history how not to have wars.  I don’t think people will learn, not enough to make a difference.”
         Smart still believes Jim Jones did want to make a positive difference, but that he could not handle the power that he attained.  He believed he had the power to be all things to all people.  In order to maintain this power and this way of thinking he took drugs.   
         “I would not describe him as an evil person, but a person mentally and physically impaired by drugs.”

         On May 29, 2011 Smart witnessed the dedication ceremony at Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland, California.  Four panel plaques listing the names of all those who died were placed over the mass grave of 412 unclaimed bodies.  Smart gave a speech during the dedication.

         “Thirty-two years, six months, one week and five days ago, none of us thought we would be here to dedicate four memorial plaques to over 900 people, family, friends, children, loved ones.  No did 11,881 days ago did my four children – Tinetra Fain, Al Smart, Scott Smart, Teri Smart – my mother Kay Nelson and my uncle Jim McElvane know that we would be here dedicating four memorial stones.  To them, I say that I’m sorry it took so long.  This should have happened a long time ago. 



         I find it difficult to speak at any length about my family, especially my children, but I’d kind of like to say something about some of the other children that were in the LA Temple. 

     I often think about little Gary Tyler.  He really wasn’t little, but he was a teenager in the LA Temple, and very quiet, very shy, but extremely smart and very dedicated.  There was Darrell Devers who I secretly had hoped would be my son-in-law one day, not that I was unhappy with the choice my daughter made with Poncho.  Poncho had a beautiful voice.  The day I was over there, I went over with my two – three younger children, and of course, I think we all know the talent shows that Jonestown is famous for, and People’s Temple, and Poncho sang “The Greatest Love,” and there were so many years after that I could not listen to that song, until one day, I accidentally heard the last few lines, that said, “Ad if by chance that special place that you’ve been dreaming of, leads you to a lonely place, find your strength in love.”  And I hope that they did.

         I didn’t realize that Poncho had living family until today, and his brother is here, and I was so happy to meet him.

         I don’t know how many of you know the Baisy children – there were a lot of them – but they were so well behaved and they used to kind of look like little ducklings following behind their mother.  

     And there was Angela Connessero.  Little baby, beautiful little baby, and I used to sit and hold her and rock her to sleep.

         We knew these children.  (Pause)  They were no different than other children.  They had the same dreams, the same hopes, the same problems, but they had one thread running through them that was consistent, and that was, they all wanted a better wor4ld for everyone.  And they were steadfast in that desire, some even more so than their adult counterparts.

         There are a number of children buried here who have been – who were not identified.  Among them are Teri and Scottie, my two youngest.  Now with these four markers and all the names, they are no longer unidentified or unclaimed.  We know that they’re here, they’re named, and after all these years, I realized there was something I need to do, wanted to do, and didn’t know what it was.  I want us to say goodbye.  And now I can.  By Mom.  Bye Uncle Jim.  And by my beautiful children. Thank you.”

Despite the horrific loss of her four children, mother, and uncle, and the destruction of her church, as well as the egomania of Jim Jones, Smart still believes in a Supreme Being but she refuses to call that Supreme Being by the name God.

         “I would never call Him God because there’s been too many horrible things done in the name of God.  They cannot tarnish that (Supreme Being) name.  And that makes me feel better.”





PHOTO 1
Jim Jones.  Fair Use Under the United States Copyright Law.  

PHOTO 2
Juanell Smart at home on February 19, 2010.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 3.
Teri Lynn Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 4.
James “Jim” McElvane.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 5..
Kay Nelson in Washington, D.C. 1972.  Copyright by Juanell Smart. 

PHOTO 6.
Jim Jones preaching in Los Angeles.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu
 
PHOTO 7.
Jim Jones preaching in Redwood Valley, California in 1971. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 8.
Alfred Laughton Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 9.
Tinetra Fain.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 10.
Scott Cameron Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 11.
Kay Nelson as a young woman.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 12.
From left to right top:
Kim Uneii - murdered in Jonestown
John-John Stoen (baby being held by Uneii) - murdered in Jonestown
Phil Lacey - survivor. His mother and sister were murdered in Jonestown
Dorothy Buckley - murdered in Jonestown
Name withheld - survivor
Darrin Swinney - murdered in Jonestown
From left to right bottom:
Danny Beck - murdered in Jonestown
Steve Burnham - survivor
Martin Amos - murdered in Jonestown
Danny Pierson - believed to have survived, but whereabouts unknown
Darrin Janaro - murdered in Jonestown
Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 13.
Jim Jones baptizing a church member.  Fair Use Under the Untied States Copyright Law.

PHOTO 14
Kay Nelson.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 15.
David Parker Wise.  Jim Jones preaching in Los Angeles.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 16.
The People’s Temple in Los Angeles.  Attributed to Lela Howard.  Jim Jones preaching in Los Angeles.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 17.
Kay Nelson.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 18.
Jim Jones.  Attributed to Nancy Wong.  Jim Jones preaching in Los Angeles.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 19.
James “Jim” McElvane.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 20.
Jim Jones preaching.  Jim Jones preaching in Los Angeles.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 21.
Jim Jones with toucan in Jonestown Guyana, South America.  Photo taken from 1974 to 1978 time frame. The California Historical Society (CHS) is providing access to these photos for educational and research purposes.  www.californiahistoricalsociety.org

PHOTO 22.
Jim Jones.  Copyright Fair Use Under the United States Copyright Law.

PHOTO 23.
Peoples Temple youth including Scott Smart, Eleanor Beam, Teri Smart, Tommy Beikman, Al Smart, sitting on the porch of the house in Georgetown.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 24.
Tinetra Fain in Jonestown 1978.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 25.
Jim Jones.  Photo taken on November 18, 1978. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 26.
NBC reporter Don Harris (left) and S.F. Examiner photographer Greg Robinson (right) were filmed by NBC cameraman Robert Brown just minutes before all three were killed. (NBC / Chronicle File 1978).  Fair Use Under the United States Copyright Law.

PHOTO 27.
Leo J. Ryan, D-Calif., left, and three newsmen were killed in an ambush in northern Guyana on Nov. 18, 1978, after visiting the jungle headquarters of a controversial American religious sect. The others are Don Harris, an investigative Reporter for KNBC-TV in Los Angeles; Robert Brown, a cameraman with NBC news; and Greg Robinson, a photographer with the San Francisco Examiner.  Fair Use Under the United States Copyright Law.

PHOTO 28
Patricia Parks. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 29.
November 18, 1978.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use
by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 30.
Alfred Laughton Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 31.
Kay Nelson, Tinetra Fain, Terri Lynn Smart in Washington D.C. 1972.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 32.
Juanell Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 33.
The entrance to Jonestown.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 34 and PHOTO 37.
Jim Jones on November 18, 1978. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 35.
Juanell Smart on May 2011.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 36.
Jim Jones in blue shirt surrounded by members of the People’s Temple.  The California Historical Society (CHS) is providing access to these photos for educational and research purposes.  www.californiahistoricalsociety.org

PHOTO 38.
Juanell Smart giving her speech at the dedication ceremony in Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland, California.  May 29, 2011.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 39.
Tinetra Fain in Jonestown, 1978.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 40.
Kay Nelson in Johnstown, Guyana, South America.  1978.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 41.
James “Jim” McElvane.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 42.
Jim Jones with the Children of the People’s Temple in Jonestown, Guyana, South America. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 43.
Tinetra Fain, smiling and sitting on floor with blue shirt, against Poncho Johnson’s legs.   1978 in Jonestown, Guyana, South America.  Copyright by Juanell Smart. 

PHOTO 44.
Kecia Basey. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu
 
PHOTO 45.
Jonestown 1978 Dawnyelle Fitch, Tad Schroeder, Jamal Baisy Playing. Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 46.
Precious babies of Jonestown.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 47.
Children of Jonestown.  Photo originally placed in Jonestown brochure.  Tape transcripts, summaries, some primary source documents, and photographs not otherwise designated as copyrighted on this site are free and available to the public for use by crediting: The Jonestown Institute, http://jonestown.sdsu.edu

PHOTO 48.
Juanell Smart giving her speech at the dedication ceremony in Evergreen Cemetery in Oakland, California.  May 29, 2011.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.

PHOTO 49.
Memorial gravesite for the unclaimed bodies (and all the names) of the victims of the Jonestown mass killing in 1978. Evergreen Cemetery, Oakland, California.  Attributed to Mercurywoodrose.  Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.

PHOTO 50.
Juanell Smart.  Copyright by Juanell Smart.