Monday, July 13, 2020

Eleanor Kedney’s “Between the Earth and Sky” is #189 in the never-ending series called BACKSTORY OF THE POEM

Chris Rice Cooper 

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*Eleanor Kedney’s “Between the Earth and Sky” is #189 in the never-ending series called BACKSTORY OF THE POEM where the Chris Rice Cooper Blog (CRC) focuses on one specific poem and how the poet wrote that specific poem.  All BACKSTORY OF THE POEM links are at the end of this piece. 

Can you go through the step-by-step process of writing this poem from the moment the idea was first conceived in your brain until the final form? I am aware that when the syntax in a poem I’m writing becomes awkward or confusing, I am not connecting to deeper emotions and what the poem wants to be about. 

          I need to gain clarity and revise the lines, or if I can’t make them work, cut them out of the poem. I attended a writing workshop at the Iowa Summer Writing Festival Juliet Patterson titled “What's Love Got to Do with it? A Field Guide to the Sentence in Poetry & Prose.” 
       I took the class because of a tendency to have convoluted syntax in my work. The class focus was on how good writing is made from the craft of individual sentences and by the tension and play between them, and I thought it might help me in my revision process. I was interested in the various effects a sentence can produce—rhythm, drama, and meaning.         
          One exercise Juliet Patterson https://www.juliet gave the class was to write a series of ten sentences of seventeen syllables. The function of the exercise was to look at how it changed one’s syntax. One day, I attended a reading given by workshop instructors. I felt anger coming through in many of the pieces read. When everyone left the auditorium, I stayed. In the silence, moved by what I had heard, I felt an urgency to write about my brother (Peter Roy Kedney) and his addiction.
          I took out my notebook and wrote “Between the Earth and Sky.” The combination of being inspired by listening to other writers’ work and having craft guidelines as a framework, enabled me to access my own anger. 
          My understanding is that other emotions are beneath anger, e.g., sorrow. I wanted more than anger to come through in the language. When I shared the poem in class, Juliet considered it close to being done. 
          I usually write at least seven drafts of a poem before I show it to another writer, and I write many more drafts before I send a poem out to a journal. This poem did go through several more refining drafts to make the imagery stronger and deepen the mood, but I felt I had the heart of the poem in the first draft.

Where were you when you started to actually write the poem? I was in an Iowa University auditorium. Everyone had left after a reading by some of the instructors teaching in the Iowa Writing Festival Workshops. After everyone was gone, I sat there alone. There were rows upon rows of empty seats facing the stage. The stage was bare, the auditorium quiet. It was a metaphor for loss. When I took out my notebook and started to write, I felt the space, a large container where powerful words by talented writers had just been spoken, provided great support. I had to add my voice to that place.

What month and year did you start writing this poem? It was written sometime during 7/13/12 to 7/18/12 in the week-long workshop.

How many drafts of this poem did you write before going to the final? I wrote at least three more drafts, which improved the syntax and strengthened the imagery in the poem.

Can you describe the techniques you employed in writing this poem? In the hand-written draft, I was counting syllables. When I typed it up, I chose not to include any punctuation within the sentence so that each sentence would be read without a pause until the reader got to the period. 

          Also, I wrote it as one-line stanzas so there would be more of a pause created by the stanza breaks. When I read the poem out loud, I would read each line quickly with emphasis, followed by the end stop and the stanza break. I felt the poem’s structure helped create anger, which is often expressed in a moving stream of words that relent when one needs to catch their breath. But, as I revised the lines, I added punctuation and did not worry about the syllable count. I wanted clarity so readers would not stop reading mid-sentence because of confusion.
          In later versions, I edited what was general and made it more specific. Scene enactment versus reporting on the scene deepens the mood and grounds the reader. For example, the priest’s “odd” laugh became “boisterous” laugh. Instead of telling the reader that leaving the hospital at night was “dangerous,” the line changed to: “I left the Bronx hospital at night, the strangers in the parking lot.” It allows the reader to supply their own emotion to the poem and, in this case, feel the danger and fear. In addition, I removed the second-person direct address to the brother. Using third person and first person made the poem more accessible and more universal.
     Stephanie Dickinson, (http://stephanie
a writer I have known for many years and whose work I admire, called the poem “powerful, so stark, so deceptively simple but absolutely deep and layered.” I’m grateful to her careful reading of the poem and insight into how there are layers of deeper emotion below simple language.
          The importance of separating the speaker’s tone of voice from the mood of the poem is one of the many craft elements I learned in The Writers Studio. https://www.writers
Philip Schultz, the founder of The Writers Studio and a Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, was my mentor. I studied with him for a long time.
After I moved to Tucson, I founded the Tucson branch of the NY-based school, became the director, and taught classes until I retired in 2015. (Right)  Another narrative technique I use in this poem is the use of disjunctive images. Using images that are not connected to each other works if there is one emotional thread throughout the poem. That’s the difference between lines that ground the reader and lines that seem like random thoughts around a theme. Without that thread, a reader might not feel anything when they read the poem.

Were there any lines in any of your rough drafts of this poem that were not in the final version?  And can you share them with us? Yes. In my handwritten draft, I crossed out the line “Entering your ICU room, the next intubated again with a tube.” It wasn’t a complete sentence. I imagine it could have been written as “Entering your ICU room, the next visit, you were intubated again with a tube.” I didn’t revise the line and include it in the poem because it didn’t work syllabically at the time, and I was limited to ten sentences. It was also cut because the details seemed too private and would have made the poem harder for readers to relate their own experiences to it. Every other line I kept in the poem had distance to the poem’s subject.

What do you want readers of this poem to take from this poem? I want readers to feel the cumulative effect of each line but have a moment to absorb the pain and loss between stanza breaks. I want each line to stay with the reader like earthquake aftershocks. Hopefully, readers will take their time with the poem and read it more than once. What isn’t being said is important as well—it allows the reader to have their own emotional reaction to the poem and not be told how to feel. When a poem resonates with a reader, their perspective on any subject can shift and the poem can be healing and/or even help someone survive their pain and grief.

Which part of the poem was the most emotional for you to write and why? The part of the poem that was most emotional to write is the line “Methadone clinics are disguised gray buildings between the earth and sky.” The clinic where a heroin addict gets methadone for relief from pain should be a place of healing, of support, but it is a nondescript, anonymous place. You have to be an addict to know it’s there. There is a stigma to addiction and addicts are often not embraced as having a disease. Who they are becomes obscured by their addiction; we don’t see the whole person. So, what the clinic as a disguised building represents contains many layers of meaning.

Can you go into detail about the jacket cover of BETWEEN THE EARTH AND SKY? It’s hard to talk about the title poem without also talking about the cover, which I love. First, I’d like to thank Philippe Bürgy (Right) who took the amazing photo and offered it on Unsplash for use, and I’d like to thank the cover designer, Sally Underwood ( for her talent and vision.
          The cover represents the wonderful collaboration I had with C&R Press (https://www. and it sets the mood for the book. I am especially grateful to John Gosslee, (https://www.
C&R Press publisher and editor, for our work together. He contributed a lot to this book coming together in the final version.
          It was important to me to have both an opium poppy pod and an opium poppy flower (papaver somniferum) appear on the cover. The poppy seed pod contains the milky sap (opium in its crudest form) that is made into morphine and heroin. Morphine is often used to help people transition without pain when they are dying. Heroin is an addictive substance that can tragically ruin and/or take one’s life. The open red poppy is so beautiful and represents remembrance. 
          As a young girl, I remember we would receive a red poppy when my father made a donation to the VFW. Having both the closed pod and the open flower on the cover represents for me the full emotional range of life to be experienced and felt—the pain and the beauty. Being alive happens between the earth and sky. The vertical white line placed next to the title reminds me that as humans we stand with upright spines on the Mother Earth and we reach for the sky. Some might see it as a fine white powder line.          
  My friend Ted Harrison (Right) said that he saw balance in the cover; the word “earth” is placed in the sky and the word “sky” sits on the earth and that there is gold in the middle. There’s nothing to turn away from, and readers are invited to open the book.

Has this poem been published before?  And if so where?
It was first published in the literary journal Mudfish (Mudfish 19).
          I also included it in my chapbook The Offering (Liquid Light Press, 2016).
          It then became the title of my first full-length collection published on March 15, 2020 by C&R Press. Under the “craft” page on my Website (www.eleanor one can read about how the manuscript evolved and became Between the Earth and Sky. My brother and his addiction are the heart of the book and it is dedicated to him.
Between the Earth and Sky                
(Published in the  full-length collection, titled BETWEEN THE EARTH AND SKY

Though we stayed until dark, my brother died alone in the hum of a white room.
The priest’s boisterous laugh at the burial as I held clumped dirt in my fist.
Tony said my brother drank gasoline on a dive bar dare.
I left the Bronx hospital at night, the strangers in the parking lot.
A junkie at the wake scratched his arm and shook hands with Dad.
Methadone clinics are unmarked gray buildings between the earth and sky.
Outside the methadone clinic a guy tried to sell my brother heroin.
We pulled the plates off his broken truck and left it on the street.
His body raised on the morgue slab behind a window for us to name.
The tree he planted is tall and leafing and breathing and bleeds.

     Eleanor Kedney is the author of the poetry collection Between the Earth and Sky (C&R Press, March, 2020) and the chapbook The Offering (Liquid Light Press, 2016). Her poems have been published in literary journals and anthologies, including Miramar Poetry Journal, New Ohio Review, Sliver of Stone, and Under a Warm Green Linden
     She was awarded the 2019 riverSedge Poetry Prize (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley) for her poem “Bubbles Blown through a Wand.” Kedney is the founder of the Tucson branch of the New York-based Writers Studio and served as the director for ten years. She taught all class levels for the program, including the first Tucson Master Class. She lives in Stonington, Connecticut and Tucson, Arizona with her husband, Peter Schaffer, dog, Fred, and cat, Ivy. Learn more at


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003 January 12, 2018
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004 January 22, 2018
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005 January 29, 2018
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007 February 09, 2018
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008 February 17, 2018
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049  December 15, 2018
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056  January 7, 2019
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057  January 10, 2019
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058  January 11, 2019
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060 January 14, 2019
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061 January 19, 2019
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062  January 22, 2019
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063  January 25, 2019
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064  January 30, 2019
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065 February 02, 2019
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066 February 05, 2019
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067  February 06, 2019
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068 February 11, 2019
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069 February 12, 2019
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070 February 14, 2019
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071 February 18, 2019
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072 February 20, 2019
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073 February 23, 2019
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074 February 26, 2019
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075 March 4, 2019
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076 March 5, 2019
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077 March 7, 2019
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078 March 9, 2019
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079 March 10, 2019
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080 March 12, 2019
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081   082   083    March 14, 2019
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084 March 15, 2019
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085 March 19, 2019
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086 March 20, 2019
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087 March 21, 2019
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088 March 26, 2019
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089 March 27, 2019
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#090 March 30, 2019
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#091 April 2, 2019
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#092 April 4, 2019
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#093 April 5, 2019
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#094 April 8, 2019
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#095 April 12, 2019
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#096 April 16, 2019
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#097 April 17, 2019
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#098 April 19, 2019
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#099 April 20, 2019
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#100 April 21, 2019
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#101 April 23, 2019
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#102 April 26, 2019
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#103 May 01, 2019
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#104 May 09, 2019
“How to tell my dog I’m dying”
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#105 May 17, 2019
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#106 June 01, 2019
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#107 June 02, 2019
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#108 June 05, 2019
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#109 June 6, 2019
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#110 June 10, 2019
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#111 Backstory of the Poem’s
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#112 Backstory of the Poem’s
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#113 Backstory of the Poem’s
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#114 Backstory of the Poem’s
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#115 Backstory of the Poem
“Because the Birds Will Survive, Too”
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#116 Backstory of the Poem
by Joan Barasovska

#117 Backstory of the Poem
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#118 Backstory of the Poem
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#119 Backstory of the Poem
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by Janet Renee Cryer

#120 Backstory of the Poem
“Horse Fly Grade Card, Doesn’t Play Well With Others”
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#121 Backstory of the Poem
“My Mother’s Cookbook”
by Rachael Ikins

#122 Backstory of the Poem
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by Maureen Kadish Sherbondy

#123 Backstory of the Poem
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by Nickole Brown

#124 Backstory of the Poem
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by Paul Levinson

#125 Backstory of the Poem
by Tiff Holland

#126 Backstory of the Poem
by Cindy Hochman

#127 Backstory of the Poem
by Natasha Saje

#128 Backstory of the Poem
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by Allison Blevins

#129 Backstory of the Poem
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by Linda Parsons

#130 Backstory of the Poem
“Schooling High, In Beslan”
by Satabdi Saha

#131 Backstory of the Poem
“Baby Jacob survives the Oso Landslide, 2014”
by Amie Zimmerman

#132 Backstory of the Poem
“Our Age of Anxiety”
by Henry Israeli

#133 Backstory of the Poem
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by Ken Allan Dronsfield

#134  Backstory of the Poem
by Janine Canan

#135 Backstory of the Poem
by Catherine Zickgraf

#136 Backstory of the Poem
“Bushwick Blue”
by Susana H. Case

#137 Backstory of the Poem
“Then She Was Forever”
by Paula Persoleo

#138 Backstory of the Poem
by Kris Bigalk

#139 Backstory of the Poem
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by Tony Trigilio

#140 Backstory of the Poem
“Cloud Audience”
by Wanita Zumbrunnen

#141 Backstory of the Poem
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by Matthew Freeman

#142 Backstory of the Poem
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by Cheryl Suchors

#143 Backstory of the Poem
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by Robert Walicki

#144 Backstory of the Poem
“If I Had Three Lives”
by Sarah Russell

#145 Backstory of the Poem
by Andrea Rexilius

#146 Backstory of the Poem
“The Night Before Our Dog Died”
by Melissa Fite Johnson

#147 Backstory of the Poem
by David Anthony Sam

#148 Backstory of the Poem
“A Kitchen Argument”
by Matthew Gwathmey

#149 Backstory of the Poem
by Bruce Kauffman

#150 Backstory of the Poem
“I Will Tell You Where I’ve Been”
by Justin Hamm

#151 Backstory of the Poem
by Michael A Griffith

#152 Backstory of the Poem
by Margo Taft Stever

#153 Backstory of the Poem
“1. Girl”
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#154 Backstory of the Poem
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#155 Backstory of the Poem
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#156 Backstory of the Poem
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#157 Backstory of the Poem
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#158 Backstory of the Poem
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#159 Backstory of the Poem
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#160 Backstory of the Poem
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#161 Backstory of the Poem
by David Dephy

#162 Backstory of the Poem
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by Janice D Soderling

#163 Backstory of the Poem
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#164 Backstory of the Poem
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#165 Backstory of the Poem
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#166 Backstory of the Poem
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by Prartho Sereno

#167 Backstory of the Poem
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#168 Backstory of the Poem
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#169 Backstory of the Poem
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#170 Backstory of the Poem
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#171 Backstory of the Poem/ May 09, 2020
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#172 Backstory of the Poem/ May 12, 2020
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#173 Backstory of the Poem/ May 14, 2020
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#174 Backstory of the Poem/ May 18, 2020
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#175 Backstory of the Poem/ May 20, 2020
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#176 and #177 Backstory of the Poem/ May 25, 2020
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“My Mistake”
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#178 Backstory of the Poem/ June 05, 2020
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#179 Backstory of the Poem/ June 15, 2020
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#180 Backstory of the Poem/ June 20, 2020
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by Carly My Loper

#181 Backstory of the Poem/ June 23, 2020
“Electric Mail”
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#182 Backstory of the Poem
June 24, 2020
“Her First Ten Days”
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#183 Backstory of the Poem
June 26, 2020
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by Dr. Ampat Varghese Koshy

#184 Backstory of the Poem
July 2, 2020
by Victor Enns

#185 Backstory of the Poem
July 5, 2020
“A Way of Life”
by Dan Provost

#186 Backstory of the Poem
July 6, 2020
“The Alabama Wiregrassers”
by Charles Ghigna

#186 Backstory of the Poem
July 6, 2020
“The Alabama Wiregrassers”
by Charles Ghigna

#187 Backstory of the Poem
July 7, 2020
“The Seer”
by Kathleen Winter

#188 Backstory of the Poem
July 11, 2020
“Stuck At Home”
by Valerie Frost

#189 Backstory of the Poem
July 13, 2020
“Between the Earth and Sky”
by Eleanor Kedney

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